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[健康体检新闻] 女性生育能力:为什么健康的生活方式很重要
2015-05-27

女性生育能力:为什么健康的生活方式很重要

文章转自译言网

Female fertility can be affected by yourlifestyle choices. Find out what steps you can take to keep your reproductivesystem healthy.

生活方式可以影响女性的生育能力。通过阅读这篇文章,找到适合你的办法,来保持您生殖系统的健康。

By Mayo Clinic staff

梅奥诊所撰文

If you're hoping to get pregnant now orin the future, you may wonder about your fertility and whether you can improveit. Some factors may be beyond your control — such as medical issues that affectfemale fertility but that isn't the end of the story.Your lifestyle choices can affect your fertility, too. Find out what steps youcan take to promote and protect your fertility.

无论现在还是遥远的将来,只要您考虑过怀孕,那么或许您也想过这样一个问题,即“我的生育能力如何?怎样能提高它?” 在影响生育能力的因素里面,有些是不可控的,如疾病导致的生育能力下降-但这只是其中一个因素。您的生活方式同样也能影响生育能力。来读一下这篇文章吧,找到适合你的方法,并认真执行。

What is female fertility?

女性生育能力的定义是什么?

Female fertility is a woman's ability toconceive a biological child. You and your partner may question your ability tohave a baby or your fertility if you've been trying to get pregnant withfrequent, unprotected sex for at least one year with no success.

它指女性怀上生物学意义上的“孩子”的能力。如果您和您的爱侣在一年内有相当频率的做爱次数且不采取避孕措施而未能成功受孕的话,那么您也许会对自己的生育能力产生怀疑。

What causes female fertility problems?

导致女性生育能力下降的原因有哪些?

Various medical issues can contribute tofemale fertility problems, including:

很多疾病能导致生育能力下降,包括:

Ovulation disorders

排卵紊乱

Damaged fallopian tubes

输卵管损伤

Endometriosis — when the endometrium,which normally lines the uterus, grows in other places as well

子宫内膜异位症-即原本应该生长在子宫里的内膜,生长在子宫以外的地方

Uterine problems

子宫疾病

Age also plays a role in fertility.Delaying pregnancy can decrease the likelihood that you'll be able to conceive.As you reach your 30s, your eggs may decline in quality and you may ovulateless frequently, even if you're still having regular periods. An older woman'seggs also aren't fertilized as easily as a younger woman's eggs.

年龄也是影响生育能力的因素之一。年龄过大会导致受精能力下降。当女人进入30岁时,卵子的质量下降,且排卵也不如以前频繁-即使你依然拥有规律的月经周期。高龄女士的卵子与年轻女子的卵子相比,受精的概率大大下降。

What can I do to promote femalefertility?

我该如何提高我的生育能力?

Healthy lifestyle choices can help youpromote fertility. For example:

健康的生活方式可以帮助你提高生育能力。举例来说:

Maintain a healthy weight. Beingoverweight or significantly underweight may affect production of the hormoneestrogen and inhibit normal ovulation. Maintaining a healthy weight mayincrease the frequency of ovulation and likelihood of pregnancy.

保持健康体重。无论是超重还是体重偏轻,体内雌激素的分泌及正常的排卵功能都会受影响。保持健康的体重能提高排卵频率和受孕几率。

Prevent sexually transmitted infections(STIs). Sexually transmitted infections — such as chlamydia and gonorrhea can damage the fallopian tubes. Avoid having unprotected sex withmultiple partners, which increases your chances of contracting an STI that maycause fertility problems.

预防性传播疾病。衣原体病、淋病等都能导致输卵管损伤。避免滥交,避免没有保护措施的性爱——这些都会增加你患性病的几率,从而影响生育。

Schedule regular checkups. Regularvisits to your health care provider can help you detect and treat healthproblems that may threaten your fertility.

保持定期检查。定期与医生会面能帮助你早期发现自身问题并得到及时的治疗,从而保护生育能力。

What should I avoid to protect femalefertility?

我该避免些什么,以保护生育能力?

To protect your fertility, avoid:

你需要避免如下不良习惯:

Smoking. Besides damaging your cervixand fallopian tubes, heavy smoking ages your ovaries and depletes your eggsprematurely. Nicotine and other chemicals in cigarettes also interfere withestrogen production and cause eggs to be more prone to genetic abnormalities.If you smoke, ask your health care provider to help you quit.

吸烟。烟瘾不仅会损伤你的子宫和输卵管,也会加速卵巢衰老并阻碍卵子的成熟。香烟中的尼古丁和其他物质会干扰雌激素的生成,从而使卵子易于发生基因突变。如果您是个烟民,请咨询医生,着手戒烟。

Alcohol. Heavy drinking is associatedwith an increased risk of ovulation disorders — and some research has shown that evenlight drinking may reduce the likelihood of conceiving. If you'd like to getpregnant, it's best to avoid alcohol completely.

饮酒。酗酒会导致卵巢功能紊乱——然而,一些研究表明,即使是小酌两口,也可能会降低受孕几率。如果您打算怀孕,最好的办法是彻底戒酒。

Excessive caffeine. Too much caffeinemay increase estrogen production, decrease estrogen metabolism, and contributeto fallopian tube damage and endometriosis. To protect your fertility, limitthe amount of caffeine in your diet to no more than the equivalent of six cupsof coffee a day (900 milligrams of caffeine). This includes the caffeine incoffee, tea, chocolate, soda and energy drinks.

过量的咖啡因摄入。过量的咖啡因能刺激雌激素生成,却同时降低其代谢率,从而导致输卵管损伤和子宫内膜异位症。若想保护生育能力,请减少每日的咖啡因摄入,控制其在每日6杯咖啡以内(等同于900毫克的咖啡因)。除了咖啡中含有咖啡因,茶、巧克力、苏打水和能量饮料中也同样具备。

Stress. Severe stress can inhibitovulation, and even mild stress can affect your fertility. Although moreresearch is needed to show the impact stress can have on female fertility,researchers recommend minimizing stress and practicing healthy coping methodswhen trying to conceive.

压力过大。压力过大会延迟排卵,且即使只有少量的压力也能影响生育。尽管目前在这方面的研究还不多,但研究人员们认为,如果想成功受孕,请尽量减少压力,并保持健康的生活习惯。

Excessive vigorous physical activity.Too much intense aerobic activity can harm female fertility by reducingproduction of the hormone progesterone and inhibiting ovulation. If you have ahealthy weight and you're thinking of becoming pregnant soon, consider limitingyour aerobic exercise to no more than seven hours a week. If you're overweight,ask your health care provider how much aerobic activity is OK.

大量的体育锻炼。过量的运动会减少孕酮的产生并抑制排卵。如果你的体重位于正常范围内,并近期打算怀孕的话,请避免过量的运动,将其控制在不多于每周7小时。假如您的体重大于正常范围,请详询医生,以获得适合您的运动方案。

Exposure to toxins. Exposure to variouschemicals or pollutants can harm your fertility. Agricultural workers and thoseinvolved in the production of oral contraceptives may be at risk of menstrualdisorders. In addition, dental assistants exposed to high levels of nitrousoxides, workers exposed to elevated levels of organic solvents — such as dry cleaningchemicals and industrial workers exposed to drugs orchemicals during the manufacturing process may be at risk of reduced fertility.Share any concerns you may have about exposure to toxins with your health careprovider.

避免接触毒物。毒物接触会妨碍生育。农业生产者和避孕药生产人员更易发生月经紊乱。此外,经常接触高剂量一氧化二氮的助理牙医、高浓度有机制剂的工人-比如干洗店用剂-以及化工厂的工人们,都很可能会产生生育能力下降的问题。如果您在怀孕前接触过任何可疑的化工制剂或有毒物质,请咨询医生。

What's the bottom line?

我还该知道些什么?

If you're thinking about becomingpregnant and you're concerned about the impact of your lifestyle choices onyour fertility, consult your health care provider. He or she may be able tohelp you improve your fertility and your chances of conceiving withoutfertility treatment.

假如您打算怀孕,却又不知道自己的生活方式对生育能力的影响,请咨询您的医生。医生们可以帮助您提高生育能力,以及受孕的几率。

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